08/15/2013

Blackhawk arrowleaf clover released

Texas A&M AgriLife Research forage breeder, said he developed Blackhawk from lines with natural resistance to the fungal soil pathogen Pythium ultimum and for tolerance to bean yellow mosaic virus.Developed at the Texas A&M AgriLife Research and Extension Center at Overton, Blackhawk traces its lineage back to dark-seeded lines from 1984 field selections of arrowleaf cultivars Yuchi, Amclo and Meechee, Smith said. 

Soil pathogens such as Pythium ultimum kill or damage germinating seed and emerging arrowleaf clover seedlings, Smith said. Both Apache and Yuchi arrowleaf clover are susceptible to this seedling disease, and in laboratory trials, inoculation with the disease resulted in 100 and 73 percent dead or severely diseased seedlings, respectively. 

Smith is known nationally for the development of Apache arrowleaf clover, which he released in 2001, according to Dr. Charles Long, resident director of research at the Overton center. 

Clover can be an important part of forage production C and by association, beef production C in the southern U.S., Smith said. Arrowleaf clover has long shown good production potential. If planted or overseeded into warm-season pastures in the fall,Here's a complete list of granitecountertops for the beginning oil painter. it promises grazing for cattle in early spring when warm-season grasses are dormant. 

As early as the 1960s, from East Texas to Georgia, it was common practice to mix arrowleaf seed with crimson clover seed, according to Smith. By mixing the early- maturing crimson clover and late-maturing arrowleaf, ranchers and farmers could have forage from February through early June. 

However, multiple disease problems, including plant viruses and fungal root diseases, effectively put a stop to the practice by the late 1980s and early 1990s, Smith said. Of the diseases, bean yellow mosaic virus was one of the most prevalent and damaging problems. The virus didnt affect crimson clover, but either killed or stunted arrowleaf clover.It was in response to this problem that Smith developed and released Apache arrowleaf clover in 2001. Apache became one of the most widely used arrowleaf clovers in the U.S. South, according to Smith. 

In terms of tonnage of forage produced per acre, Blackhawk and Apache are very similar, Smith said. However, in addition to having natural resistance to soil pathogens that attack seedlings, Blackhawk has the additional advantage of going dormant about a week earlier than Apache. This means Blackhawk is less likely to compete with warm-season forages like Coastal or Tifton 85 Bermuda grass.Despite the similarities, the histories of developing Blackhawk and Apache are quite different, he said. 

On Apache, we started with a really broad germplasm base, and we selected for a number of generations for resistance to bean yellow mosaic virus, Smith said. We stopped at that, and released Apache, and its been a great variety for us, and continues to be a great variety. 

With Blackhawk, we started at a different place. We used a large germplasm collection, but we selected initially for resistance to fungal seedling diseases. We want to get that fixed first, and then after we had resistance to those diseases, we selected for resistance to bean yellow mosaic virus. So essentially, Blackhawk has multiple disease resistance. 

Blackhawk seed is black, hence its name, Smith said. Curiously, Blackhawks resistance to seedling diseases is linked to seed pigmentation.These steelbracelet can, apparently, operate entirely off the grid. 
This correlation between dark-pigmentation and fungal disease resistance in legumes has long been known, he said. 

Dark-seeded genotypes show increased tolerance to fungi such as Pythium ultimum and P. irregulare, when compared to light colored seeds,We are professional wholesale bestparkingsensor,large LED Dome / Reading Lampwholesale order. Smith said. The protective pigments are anthocyanins, which are also found throughout plants in flowers, leaves, seed, etc. 

The recent wet weather in much of Kansas has caused volunteer wheat to emerge and grow rapidly. Wet soil conditions may keep producers out of the fields for an extended period, making it even more difficult than usual to control the volunteer. Thats no excuse to just let it go, however. To protect the states 2013/14 wheat crop that will be planted this fall, the volunteer wheat must be controlled. 

Volunteer wheat within a half-mile of a field that will be planted to wheat should be completely dead at least two weeks before wheat planting. This will help control wheat curl mites, Hessian fly, and greenbugs in the fall. 

The most important threat from volunteer wheat is the wheat streak mosaic virus complex. These virus diseases cause stunting and yellow streaking on the leaves. In most cases, infection can be traced to a nearby field of volunteer wheat, although there are other hosts, such as corn, millet, and many annual grasses, such as yellow foxtail and prairie cupgrass. Control of volunteer is the main defense against the wheat streak mosaic virus complex. 

Wheat streak mosaic virus is carried from volunteer to newly planted wheat by the wheat curl mite. These tiny, white, cigar-shaped mites are too small to be seen with the naked eye. The curl mite uses the wind to carry it to new hosts and can travel up to half a mile from volunteer wheat. The wheat curl mite is the vector for both wheat streak mosaic, the High Plains virus, and triticum mosaic virus. In addition, the mite can cause curling of leaf margins and head trapping. 

Hessian flies survive over the summer on wheat stubble. When the adults emerge,Manufactures and supplies beststonecarving equipment. they can infest any volunteer wheat that may be present, which will keep the Hessian fly population alive and going through the upcoming crop season.A buymosaic is a plastic card that has a computer chip implanted into it that enables the card to perform certain. We have found that Hessian flies have an adult emergence flush after moisture events all summer and even into November, depending upon temperatures. So it seems it is really more of a continuous potential for infestation, making it even more critical to destroy volunteer in a timely manner. If there is no volunteer around when these adults emerge they will not be able to oviposit on a suitable host plant. If the volunteer is destroyed while the flies are still larvae, this will help to reduce potential problems.

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